School Choice Policies

Charter School Choice

Do state statutes allow for charter schools?

Are for-profit charters allowed?

Did not find

Is there a cap on the number of charter schools?


However, at least one-half of the public charter schools per division shall be designed for at-risk students. This does apply to existing public schools that are converted into a public charter schools that serves the same community as the existing public schools.

22.1-212.11.A. Public charter school restrictions.

Are charters required to provide transportation for any students?


However, a charter must state its plan for transporting its students in its application.

22.1-212.8.B.(23) Charter application.

Can charter schools employ uncertified teachers?


Teacher certification required, "Professional, licensed education personnel may volunteer for assignment to a public charter school."

§ 22.1-212.13. Employment of professional, licensed personnel

Virtual School Choice

Do state statutes allow for full-time virtual schools?


"'Virtual school program' means a series of online courses with instructional content that (i) is delivered by a multidivision online provider primarily electronically using the Internet or other computer-based methods; (ii) is taught by a teacher primarily from a remote location, with student access to the teacher given synchronously, asynchronously, or both; (iii) is delivered as a part-time or full-time program; and (iv) has an online component with online lessons and tools for student and data management."

22.1-212.23. Definitions

Are virtual schools required to track attendance?

Did not find

Do virtual schools have to comply with state teacher certification requirements?


"Teachers who deliver instruction to students through online courses or virtual school programs shall be licensed by the Board of Education and shall be subject to the requirements of §§ 22.1-296.1, 22.1-296.2, and 22.1-296.4 applicable to teachers employed by a local school board."

22.1-212.26.A. Teachers and administrators of online courses and virtual programs

Private School Choice

Do state statutes allow for voucher programs?


No voucher programs found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Do state statutes allow for educational expense tax credits or deductions?


No educational expense tax credits or deductions found.

EdChoice School Choice in America

Can students use vouchers to attend religious schools?

Not Applicable

Is there a cap on the number of students or private schools participating in voucher programs?

Not Applicable

Are voucher students in private schools required to take any standardized tests?

Not Applicable

Can private schools be removed from voucher programs based on performance?

Not Applicable

Are private schools in voucher programs required to provide transportation?

Not Applicable

Interdistrict School Choice

Do state statutes allow for interdistrict choice?


"'Open enrollment' means a policy adopted and implemented by a local school board to allow any student to enroll in any school within the school division of attendance regardless of the location of the student's residence."

22.1-7.1.D. Open school enrollment policy

Are receiving schools or districts required to provide transportation to any students?


A local school board may require that the parent or guardian provide transportation for the student attending a school other than his assigned school.

22.1-7.1.A.2. Open school enrollment policy.

Page last updated: January 2020

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The content contained herein is currently under review by state policy experts. This beta version of the Policy Map provides a snapshot of school choice policy found in laws passed by the legislative bodies, for all 50 states and Washington, D.C., based on information gathered from state statutes. This information is current through the second legislative session of 2019. The information contained here does not reflect state Department of Education administrative policies, rules, or regulations. Additionally, the information on this website does not constitute legal advice. All content on this site is provided for informational purposes only. As previously indicated, information on this site may not include the most up-to-date policy information. This site contains links to other third-party websites. Such links are for the user’s convenience; neither REACH nor any affiliated entities endorse the contents of third-party sites.